Vitamin and Mineral Research


Nearly every other manufacturer adds chemically synthesized forms of vitamins and minerals in order to reach nutritional profiles established by the Association of American Feed Controls Officials, or AAFCO. The potential toxicity from these unnatural forms of vitamins and minerals has been known for decades.

Nature’s Logic has specially formulated dry, canned, and frozen diets, treats and supplements without adding any of these potentially toxic forms of vitamins and minerals. The vitamins and minerals found in all Nature’s Logic products are those found naturally in the special whole food ingredients making up our formulas. Nature’s Logic is a pet food that reflects the true natural foods best suited for our pets.

The National Research Council, and its Committee of Animal Nutrition, has written and published two books on the dangers of synthetic vitamins: Vitamin Tolerance of Animals and Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. Both books reveal research data on the adverse effects of chemically synthesized vitamins and minerals on animals. Below are portions of the research data gathered by the National Research Council.

Vitamin A Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Cats, 31 Weanling 3,500,000
IU/kg diet
Retinylpalmitate 10 mo Gavage Loss of appetite; irritability; lethargy; exophthalmos1; cervical spondylosis2 Seawright et al., 1967
Cats, 3 Weanling 15,000,000
IU/kg diet
Retinylpalmitate 29 Wk Oral Proliferative gingivitis; incisor exfoliation; thin mandibles Seawright&Hrdlika, 1974
Dogs, 5 2 mo 75,000
IU/kg diet
Retinyl acetyl 67 d Oral Bone changes Maddock et al., 1949
Rabbits Young, 1kg 400
IU/g BW
Retinylpalmitate 5 d Gavage Depleted cartilage matrix; hair loss Thomas et al, 1960
1 Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball.
2 Degenerative joint disease affecting the cervical vertebrae, intervertebral disks and surrounding ligaments and connective tissue, sometimes with pain or paresthesia radiating down the arms as a result of pressure on the nerve root.

Vitamin B6 Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 3 Pups 20
mg/kg BW
75 Oral Growth unaffected; no adverse effects on blood parameters; histology normal3 Unna &Antopol, 1940
Dogs, Beagles 5/treatments 7-8 mo
(8kg)
50mg/kg
BW/d
PN HCI 107 d Oral No clinical effects; reduction of myelin1 in nerves; increased PN2 concentration in blood and cerebral cortex Phillips et al., 1978
Dogs, Beagles
Male/Female
10-13/group
13-15 mo 50 increasing to
150 mg/kg BW/d
PN-HCI 100 d Oral Anorexia within 2 weeks; ataxia4within 4 weeks Hoover& Carlton, 1981
Dogs, Beagles 5/treatments 7-8 mo
(8 kg)
200 mg/kg
BW/d
PN-HCI 107 d Oral Ataxia4, muscle weakness, and loss of balance after 40-75 d; reduction of myelinin nerves; increased PN concentration on blood and organs. Phillips et al., 1978
Dogs, Beagles 5/treatments 7-8 mo 250 mg/kg
BW/d
PN-HCI 1 wk Oral Incoordination; Ataxia4 Phillips et al., 1980
Dogs, Beagles Male/Female 2/group 7-11 mo 300 mg/kg
BW/d
PN-HCI 78 d Oral Development of swaying gait within 9 d; neuronal degeneration of ganglia5 Krinke et al., 1980
Dogs, Beagles 2/treatments 12 mo
(11 kg)
3g/d PN-HCI 8-26 d Oral Unsteady gait; weakness; apathy; neurologic impairment; lesions of sensory neurons Schaeppi&Krinke, 1982
Dogs,
Males/Females
Adult (-10kg) 4 total 1-5 g/kg
BW/d
PN or PN-HCI 1-4 d Oral Vomiting after dosing; ataxia4after 2 d. Sacrificed or died at 8-14 d; degeneration of posterior columns of spine found. Antopol&Tarlov, 1942
Humans, 7 20-43 2-6 g/d PN-HCI 40 mo Oral Ataxia; sensory and nervous system dysfunction; 4 humans severely disabled. Schaumburg et al., 1980
1 The substance of the cell membraneof Schwann’s cells that coils to form the myelin sheath (a tubular structure enclosing some organ or part); it has a high proportion of lipid to protein and serves as an electrical insulator.
2 Pyridoxine – one of the forms of vitamin B6
3 The department of anatomy, which deals with the minute structure, composition, and function of the tissues.
4 Failure of muscle coordination; irregularity of muscular action.
5 A general term for a group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 8 1
g/d
46 d Ortal Aggravation of hypertrophic1 osteodystrophy2 Teare et al., 1979
Dogs, 67 1-2.5
g/d
3-6 d IV No effect Leveque, 1969
Dogs, 1 5 mo 5 -3.0
g/d
14 d IV Improvement of osteodystrophy2 Vaananen&Wekman, 1979
Dogs, 12 2
g/d
3-6 d IV No effect Belfield, 1967
Dogs, 1 4 mo 3
g/d
12 d IV Improvement of osteodystrophy2 Vaananen&Wekman, 1979
Dogs, 3 9
g/d
3 d IV No effect Leveque, 1969
Horses, 2 390 &
533 Kg
5
g/d
1 d IM No effect Loscher et al., 1984
Horses, 4 440-600
Kg
10
g/d
1 d SC No effect Loscher et al., 1984
Horses, 20 300-400
Kg
5-10
g/d
1 d SC No effect Loscher et al., 1984
Horses, 10 276-609
Kg
10-20
g/d
1 d Drinking water No effect Loscher et al., 1984
Guinea
pigs, 6
350
Kg
0.2
g/d
112 d Oral Liver congestion Ohno&Myoga, 1981
Guinea pigs 250-300
Kg
0.3
g/d
4 d Oral Decreased MOF activity; altered phospholipid levels Sutton et al., 1982
Guinea
pigs, 5
Weanling
(
0.15-0.5 mg/kg 70 d Oral Depressed 7-a-Hydroxylase activity Peterson et al., 1983
1 Enlargement or overgrowth of an organ or part due to an increase in size of constituent cells.
2 Defective bine formation

Vitamin D Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs,
Males 18
Mature 0.5-1.0
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D2 1-3 wk Oral Hypercalcemia1; cardiovascular and nephrocalcinosis2; increased blood pressure Spangler et al., 1979
Foxes 2-6 mo 0.125-0.250
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D3 3 mo Oral Anorexia; hypercalcemia1; cardiovascular calcinosis3; hyaline muscle damage0; death in several animals consuming 0.250 mg/kg BW Helgebostad&Nordstoga, 1978
Horses, 1 270-321 kg 1.18
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D2 21 d Diet Severe cardiovascular calcinosis3; hypercalcemia1; hyperphosphatemia4 Harrington, 1982
Horses, 2 0.082
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D4 4 mo Diet Kidney and cardiovascular calcinosis3; death Hintz et al., 1973
Horses, 1 231 kg 0.825
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D2 33 d Diet Mild cardiovascular calcinosis3; weight loss; hypercalcemia1; hyperphosphatemia4 Harrington & Page, 1983
Horses, 1 304 kg 0.825
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D3 33 d Diet Severe weight loss; hypercalcemia1; hyperphosphatemia4; severe cardiovascular calcinosis3 Harrington & Page, 1983
Horses, 1 270-321 kg 0.232
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D3 21 d Diet No effect Harrington, 1982
Horses, 1 270-321 kg 0.550
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D2 21 d Diet No effect Harrington, 1982
Rabbits 0.250
mg/kg BW
Vitamin D3 Diet Cardiovascular calcinosis3 Toda et al., 1983
0Glassy and Transparent or nearly so
1 An excess of calcium in the blood; manifestations include fatigability, muscle weakness, depression, anorexia, nausea and constipation.2 A condition characterized by precipitation of calcium phosphate in the tubules of the kidneys, with resultant renal insufficiency.
3 A condition marked by the deposition of calcium salts in various tissues of the body.
4excessive amount of phosphates in the blood; it is usually asymptomatic.

Vitamin K Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 17 Variable Menadione
bisulfite
Single
Dose
IV LD501,
100-150 mg/kg
Richards & Shapiro, 1945
Dogs Vari15-40
mg/kgable
Menadione
bisulfite
Daily, 15 d IV Anemia; no mortality Richards & Shapiro, 1945
Horses, 11 400
kg
2.1-8.3
mg/kg
Menadione
bisulfite
Single
Dose
IM & IV Acute renal failure Rebhun et al., 1984
150% of Animals tested died

Choline Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 2 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW 3/d
Choline HCI 90 d Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1numbers reduced Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 1 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW/d
Choline HCI 7 d Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1numbers reduced Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 1 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW/d
Choline HCI 19 d Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1numbers reduced Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 1 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW/3d
Choline HCI 60 d Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1numbers reduced Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 4 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW/d
Choline HCI 25 d+ Until anemia established Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1 numbers reduced in 5 dogs, Administration of 3 daily doses produced reductions from 30-43% Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 4 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW2/d
Choline HCI Until red cell level lowered Stomach
Tube
Erthrocyte1 numbers reduced in 5 dogs, Administration of 3 daily doses produced reductions from 30-43% Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 4 Mature 10 mg/kg
BW3/d
Choline HCI After red cell levels lowered Stomach
Tube
3 daily doses produced reductions from 30-43% Davis, 1944b
Dogs, 6 1.8
kg
1500
mg/kg
Choline HCI 32-57 d Diet Improvement in growth; no adverse effects McKibbin et al., 1944
Dogs, 4 1.5-2.7
kg
2000
mg/kg
Choline HCI 10-50 d Diet Improvement in growth and liver function and reduction in liver lipid content; no adverse effects reported McKibbin et al., 1944
Dogs, 4 Mature 5
g/d
Soybean lecithin 3% Choline 80 d Diet After latent period of at least 5 d, erythrocyte numbers gradually reduced; max diminutions of 15-20% researched after 12-25 d of lecithin feeding Davis, 1944a
Dogs, 2 Mature 8 mg/kg BW/d
0.5 mg/kg BW (for 18 d)
Choline HCI administered with atropine 35 d Stomach
Tube
Required additional 10 d after atropine cessation to show comparable depressions Davis, 1944a
Dogs, 2 Mature 8 mg/kg
BW/d
Choline HCI 5 d Stomach
Tube
RAfter 15 d, erythrocyte1 numbers significantly reduced Davis, 1944a
Humans with
mature movement
disorders, 8
Mature Up to 20
g/d
Choline HCI 4 wk Oral 16-20 g associated with peak plasma concentration; rapid disappearance after dosing; some clinical improvement Hollister et al., 1978
Humans with
mature movement
disorders, 8
Mature 5
g/d
Choline HCI Single dose Oral Plasma concentrations peak at 4 h Hollister et al., 1978
1One of the elements found in peripheral blood.

Niacin Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Humans, 99 1% in gel 6-Amino-nicotinamide 4 wk Topical Transient Tachyphylaxis1 observed in 10 subjects; slight mucocutaneous toxicity observed in 25 subjects Zackheim, 1978
Rabbits Graded doses Nicotinamide Single Dose IV LD502, 2.5
g/kg BW
Hoffer, 1969
1Rapidly decreasing response to a drug after administration of a few doses.
250% of test animals tested died

Riboflavin Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 3 2 g/kg
BW
Riboflavin Single Dose Oral No evidence of toxicity; 0.1% of dose recovered in urine during 24hr Unna &Greslin, 1942
Dogs, 4 10 wk 25 mg/kg
BW/d
Riboflavin 5 mo Oral No adverse effect on growth; no
toxic signs; histology normal1
Unna &Greslin, 1942
1That department of anatomy, which deals with the minute structure, composition, and function of the tissues.

Copper Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Pony, 5 137-419
kg
19mg
618mg
1080mg
1866mg
CuCO3 Daily for 6 m Diet No effect
No ill effect
No hemolytic crisis
Liver Cu levels,
3,445-4,295ppm
Smith et al., 1975a
Smith et al., 1975a
Smith et al., 1975a
Smith et al., 1975a
Horses, 4 103-185 d 8 ppm CuSo4 225 Diet No effect Cupps& Howell, 1949
Horses 109 ppm No effect Cupps& Howell, 1949
Horses, 32 Mature 60
mg/kg
CuSo4 Once Gavage Hypercupremial1; hepatic2 and renal disease; death in 2 wk Bauer, 1975
Horses 65-99
mg/kg
CuSo4 Once Gavage Gastroenteritis3; icterus4; uremia5; hemolytic crisis6 Bauer, 1975
Horses 157-222
mg/kg
Repeated doses Gavage Gastroenteritis3; icterus4; uremia5; hemolytic crisis6 Bauer, 1975
Rabbits, 3 2
kg
2
mg/kg
CuSo4 Single dose IV No effect Eden & Green, 1939
Rabbits, 2 2
kg
2.5
mg/kg
MLD507 Eden & Green, 1939
Rabbits, 2
kg
.5
mg/kg
Death within minutes Eden & Green, 1939
Rabbits, 2
kg
.50
mg/kg
Drench 50% fatal within 6 hours Eden & Green, 1939
Rabbits, Growing 200 ppm CuSo4 5H20 Daily Diet Growth promotion; thinned cecal wall Cited by King, 1975
1An excess of copper in the blood
2Pertaining to the liver
3An acute inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, characterized by anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and weakness.
4Severe jaundice
5Signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure, including nausea, vomiting, anorexia
6Disruption of the integrity of the red blood cells causing the release of hemoglobin
750% fatality with minimum lethal dose

Iodine Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Horses, 165 Mature 48-55
mg l/mare
Iodized Salt Diet 3% incidence of goiter1 in foals Baker & Lindsey, 1968
Horses, 60 56-69
mg 1/mare
Kelp Several m 10% incidence of goiter1 in foals Baker & Lindsey, 1968
Horses, 60 288-432
mg 1/mare
Kelp Several m 10% incidence of goiter1 in foals Baker & Lindsey, 1968
Rabbits, 9 Mature 250 ppm NaI or KI 2 d before parturition Diet Only 30% survival in young to 3 d Arrington et al., 1965
Rabbits, 19 Mature 500 ppm NaI or KI 5 d before parturition Only 30% survival in young to 3 d
Dogs, 4 8-16
kg
36
mg/kg
KIO3 Several months Oral
(milk)
Some dogs vomited Webster et al., 1966
Dogs, 4 10-15
kg
59
mg/kg
KIO3 Single Dose Capsule No effect Webster et al., 1966
Dogs, 3 118
mg/kg
1 to 3 died within 1 wk Webster et al., 1966
Dogs, 3 148
mg/kg
All died within 1 wk Webster et al., 1966
Guinea Pigs, 12 250
g
KIO3 28 d 0.05% KIO3soln No adverse effect Webster et al., 1959
1Enlargement of thyroid gland

Iron Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 1 7-12
kg
10 mg/kg
20.1 mg/kg
40.2 mg/kg
FeSO47H20 10 d Capsule Vomiting
Diarrhea
Diarrhea
Hoppe et al., 1955a
Dogs, 1 150
mg/kg
FeSO4 Single Gavage Metabolic acidosis3 Reissman& Coleman, 1955
Dogs, 1 150
mg/kg
Ferrous sulfate Survived Franklin et al., 1958
Dogs, 10 250
mg/kg
Ferrous sulfate Single Tablet All died Franklin et al., 1958
Dogs, 1 6-14
kg
300
mg/kg
Ferrous sulfate Tablet Diarrhea, emesis1 and gastrointestinal damage D’Arcy & Howard, 1962
Cats, 2 Adult 5 mg/kg
10 mg/kg
20 mg/kg
40.2 mg/kg
FeSO47H20 10d Capsule Occasional emesis1; Occasional emesis1 and diarrhea;
Frequent emesis1 and diarrhea;
Frequent emesis1 and diarrhea
Hoppe et al., 1955a
Cats, 2 Adult 100
mg/kg
FeSO47H20 Single Oral LD502 Hoppe et al., 1955b
Rabbits, 5 1800
g
275
mg/kg
Ferrous sulfate Single Gavage Hepatic congestion Luongo& Bjornson, 1954
Rabbits, 5 1800
g
460
mg/kg
Ferrous sulfate Single Gavage Severe hemorrhagic necrosis of liver Luongo& Bjornson, 1954
Guinea Pigs 300
mg/kg
FeSO47H20 Single LD502 Hoppe et al., 1955b
Guinea Pigs 300
mg/kg
Ferrous gluconate Single LD502 Hoppe et al., 1955b
Guinea Pigs 200
mg/kg
Ferric chloride Single LD502 Hoppe et al., 1955b
Guinea Pigs 350
mg/kg
Ferric ammonium citrate Single LD502 Hoppe et al., 1955b
1Vomiting
250% of animals tested died
3A metabolic derangement of acid-base balance where the blood pH is abnormally low.

Magnesium Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Horses, 1 0.028 g/kg0 MgSO47H20 IV Recumbent posture Bowen et al., 1970
Dogs, 8 0.028 g/kg0 MgSO47H20 IV Recumbent posture Bowen et al., 1970
0Value refers to milligrams per kilogram of body weight

Manganese Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Rabbits, 2 Young 2.3
mg/da
Manganese Sulfate 500 d Waterb Small decrease in growth; four-fold increase in hair Mnby 100 d Umarji et al., 1969
Rabbits, 2 Young 24.4
mg/da
Manganese Sulfate 500 d Waterb Weight loss by 180 d with transient paralysis and continuing anesthesia in extremities; increased Mn in hair (10-fold) by 100 d, subsequently declined with weight loss Umarji et al., 1969
Guinea Pigs, 30 350
g
4.37
mg/da
MnCl2 30 d Gavage Six deaths; gastric mucosa; patchy necrosis1; decreased mucinand pepsinogen granules; activities for adenosine triphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase; intestinal mucosa; patchy nerosis1; decreased activities for adenosiretriphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase; increased acid phosphatase.
aAssumed MnSO4-H2O
bDrinking water
1Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease, especially in localized area of the body.

Phosphorus Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Horses, 1 2 yr 1.2% (0.4% Ca) NaH2PO4 56 d Diet Decreased calcium absorption, urinary excretion, and retention but increased fecal calcium excretion; more rapid turnover of bone calcium observed due to high dietary P Schryver et al., 1971
Dogs, 1 Adult
(12kg)
0.3, 0.9 and 1.0% (0.3% Ca) 360 d Diet Supplementary P induced greater body retention of calcium; there was deposition of calcium in kidney, tendon, and heart; bone formation rates were not changed, but resorption was significantly increased resulting in greater bone porosity and less bone mass Laflamme&Jowsey, 1972
Dogs, 1 Adult
(10kg)
1.2% (0.12% Ca) K2HPO4
NaH2PO4
CaHPO4
294 d Diet Incisor teeth were loose and there was evidence of severe bone loss Krook et al., 1971
Guinea Pigs, 1 1 wk
(150-175g)
0.5 and 0.9% (0.8% Ca) CaHPO4
2HPO4
150-600 d Diet 90% of guinea pigs that consumed the diet that contained 0.9% P and 0.8% Ca developed visable deposits of calcium phosphate; if the P was reduced to 0.5%, the incidence of the deposit was less than 10%; the animals on the high-P diet grew more slowly and the survival period was shortened Hogan et al., 1950
Guinea Pigs, 1 200 g 0.7, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.7% K2HPO4
NaH2PO4
CaHPO4
84 d Diet Consumption of the high-P diets resulted in slow weight gain, stiff joints, calcium phosphate deposits, and high mortality rate; these signs were most severe on diets that contained 1.7% P and 0.9% Ca House & Hogan, 1955
aAssumed MnSO4-H2O
bDrinking water
1Death of cells or tissues through injury or disease, especially in localized area of the body.

Potassium Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Dogs, 1 0.5-4.5
g/d
Diet Potassium toxicosis1 in adrenalectomized2 dogs Allers et al., 1936
Dogs, 1 9.6-25
kg
56-183
mg/kg
KCI 9-53 min IV Death when serum K reached 47 to 78 mg/dl Winkler et al., 1939
1Any disease of toxic origin
2To excise one or both adrenal glands

Selenium Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Horses, 2 5-12 yr 24 ppm (2 mo)
48 ppm (13 mo)
96 ppm (2 mo)
Na2SeO3 17 mo Diet (drench for 4 mo) Potassium toxicosis1 in adrenalectomized2 dogs Miller & Williams, 1940b
Horses, 1 Aged 115 ppm Na2SeO3 5 wk Diet Emaciation; listlessness; loose hair in mane and tail; softening and scaling of hoof wall; hemorrhagic and cirrhotic liver; death Miller & Williams, 1940a
Horses, 1 503
kg
2.7 kg Na2SeO3 Single Drench Labored breathing; anorexia for about 1 d; normal thereafter (observed 24 d) Miller & Williams, 1940a
Horses, 1 658
kg
24.4 mg/kg Labored breathing; toxic spasms; death in 26 hr Miller & Williams, 1940a
Horses, 1 651
kg
8.0 mg/kg Hemorrhagic gastritis; fatty degeneration of liver; death in 18 h Miller & Williams, 1940a
Horses, 1 440
kg
10.1 mg/kg Cutaneous2 muscle spasms; dilation of eyes; profuse sweating; labored breathing; death in 22hrs Miller & Williams, 1940a
Horses, 1 538
kg
12.1 mg/kg Depressed; weak; trembling; garlic breath; death in 24 hr Miller & Williams, 1940a
Dogs, 1 60 d 7.2 ppm Seleniferous corn 189 d Diet Decreased feed consumption and gain Rhian&Moxon, 1943
Dogs, 6 150 d 10 ppm Na2SeO3 100-150 d Decreased feed consumption and weight Rhian&Moxon, 1943
Dogs, 2 72 d 20 ppm Seleniferous corn 150 d Decreased feed consumption and gain Rhian&Moxon, 1943
Dogs, 10 Young 20 ppm Na2SeO3 Several weeks Diet Decreased feed consumption and gain; dull-eyed; sluggish; wandered aimlessly Moxon, 1937
1Excessive leanness; a wasted condition of the body.
2Pertaining to the skin

Sodium Chloride Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Cats 1-4
group
4,460-8,500
mg/kg body weight
Intravenous MLD1 Cutting et al., 1939
Guinea Pigs 2,910 mg/kg
body weight
Intravenous LDL2 Amberg&Helmholx, 1915
1Minimal lethal dose
2Low-density lipoprotein

Zinc Research

Species and
No. of Animals
Age or
Weight
Administration
Amount
Form Duration Route Effect(s) Reference
Horses, 3 3-4
wk
25-186 mg/kga Zinc Oxide 38 wk Diet Swelling at epiphyseal1 region of long bones; reduced growth; anemia; increased tissue Zn Willoughby et al., 1972
Dogs, 2 6.5-9
kg
400
mg/d
ZnO 3-19 Diet No adverse effects Drinker et al., 1927
Dogs, 1 9.9
kg
800
mg/d
15 wk Increased tissue Zn
Cats, 1 3.1
kg
140-283
mg/d
53 wk No adverse effects
Cats, 3 2.9-3.8
kg
252-800
mg/d
16-21 wk Loss of appetite; fibrous changes in pancreas; increased tissue Zn
Cats, 15 3.5
kg
400 mg/db
200 mg/d
320 mg/d
240 mg/d
Zinc Few days
4 wk
Few days
12-16 wk
Diet Refusal to eat or vomiting
No adverse effects
Refusal to eat or vomiting
Weight loss; decreased pancreas weight; fibrotic changes in pancreas; increased liver and pancreas Zn
Scott & Fisher, 1938
Cats, 5 1.7-5.1
kg
16-69
mg/kg
Oysters 24 h 1 meal No adverse effects Mannell, 1967
1Expanded articular end of a long bone.
aThe zinc intake was gradually increased between 9 and 20 weeks of the experiment.
bA single group of 15 cats was fed the four levels of zinc in the sequence shown